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17/05/17 | Making garment

17/05/17

In the morning, it’s life drawing lesson. Because we just have few lesson, so today Mandy said we can decide the pose and the time. Last time I tried to use two hands to draw at the same time and I found it’s interesting and funny, so this time I used two hands to draw as well. The last picture which is by Amy, she drew me when I am drawing.

In the afternoon, I was keeping making garment. I pined the garment on the mannequin and then I asked my friends to try on the garment. Because it’s made up of a lot of pieces, so it’s hard to measure the size and make it is suitable for the size of model. However, I asked someone to try on the body, then I arranged on the body.

The connection between pockets and waist bands has some problems. I designed three lines on the shoulder, but the outmost line always fell off. I checked several times and then  realised that maybe because the pocket which is connected to the waist bands is too wide. So I made it smaller to fit better.

15/05/17 | Making garment

15/05/17

Because I’ve already drape the garment once and I’ve already made the pattern, so it’s easy to restore. I draped on the mannequin again and adjusted the shape. I didn’t want to make the new pattern, so I directly started to make pockets using my fabric. Before I made the pockets, I also used the chalk to mark the position and number of each pocket. It spent me a long making, finally all the pockets are ready used.

In the afternoon, we had a tutorial with peers. It’s a good chance to see other peers’ work. I got some new ideas about how to do my sketchbook and also got some advice for my following work.

In my design, I used a range of waist bands, so I decided to make a lot of them at the same time for saving time. I considered about the combination of the string and fabric’s colour. I want t show the line of sewing, so I didn’t choose the same colour to match the fabric.

C&CS Final Essay | 16/05/17

­How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry when is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. Due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work. The collage called “Rosie the Riveter” by J. Howard Miller showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” This reflected the right of women improved a lot at that time. However, after the World War II men returned home and eventually their occupations were occupied. Furthermore, clothing has long been considered a badge of cultural identity. And feminism itself has undergone significant change since the rise of second-wave feminism in the late 1960s. Female started to fight for wearing pants, how women fight for the right of wearing? The fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism step by step?

 

Body

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap. Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Sometimes there are so many dirty clothes, so they may take special tools to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. Due to the heavy housework and the responsibility of looking after kids, female didn’t have more leisure time to do what they really want. Nevertheless, washing machine is the basic appliances in our daily life, but the invention of washing machine went thought a long history.

Image from

 

The earliest washing “machine” was the scrub board, or wash board, invented in 1797. American James King patented the first washing machine to use a drum in 1851 — the drum made King’s machine resemble a modern machine; however, it was still hand-powered.

 

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

In 1858, Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine. In 1874, William Blackstone of Indiana built a birthday present for his wife. It was a machine which removed and washed away dirt from clothes. This was the first washing machine designed for convenient use in the home.

 

 

It was a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an English printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life.

 

Image from Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, Richard Hamilton

 

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce.

 

 

At that period, women worked in the industries and played a important role, so we can know the right of women improve a lot and people more respected the female. However, it’s unfortunate that the good time doesn’t last long, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised. Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

 

However, I am doing menswear in my final major project, but I want to talk about how women fight for the right of wearing “men’s wear”. In addition, my theme is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined. It’s like the status of menswear and womenswear, there are no definite boundaries for men’s and women’s wear. Nowadays a lot of women wear the power suit and they consider that wearing unisex is a kind of way to show the personality, but we can’t believe how hard it is for women to fight for the right of wearing pants in the past, which wore the pants which is a very dangerous thing, even is life threatening.

For instance, Mary Walker, military doctor, the honorary medal of the only female winner. Several times to wear trousers and was arrested until Congress passed legislation to give her privilege – the United States approved the military doctor Mary Edward Walker wear pants at work. She is the first woman to wear pants in the World War I. After the war she has been committed to women’s improvement, promotion of women’s rights movement. Furthermore, in 1932, the United States movie star Marlene Dieti also wear pants walking in the streets of Paris, the police detained her on a “bad style” accusation, after the feminist demonstrations in the police, the police were forced to release her. Until World War II completely broke the women to wear pants deadlock.

Image from YSL’s Le Smoking Suit, 1966, Helmut Newton

 

Feminist advanced the change of women’s wear. In 1966, Yves Saint Laurent promoted the famous “Le smoking”, which is the first home tail coats. It has indicated that the era of women wearing trousers is coming. Or put it to another way, wearing unisex clothes also advanced the development of feminism. Due to the unisex design like the thickened shoulder pads and stiff trousers, gave a power for female to fight for the right of women. Although previous the meaning of “human rights” is only the right of men. (the French Declaration of Human Rights in 1789) Women’s rights are human rights and human rights are not women’s rights. From the women’s and women’s citizenship declaration began, starting from the women’s conference, out of the pursuit of equal human rights, the wave of feminism began. Since then, modern Western women’s change has begun.

 

C&CS Final Essay | 13/05/17

Title:

How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction:

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry when is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. Due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work. The collage called “Rosie the Riveter” by J. Howard Miller showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” This reflected the right of women improved a lot at that time. However, after the World War II men returned home and eventually their occupations were occupied. Furthermore, clothing has long been considered a badge of cultural identity. And feminism itself has undergone significant change since the rise of second-wave feminism in the late 1960s. Female started to fight for wearing pants, how women fight for the right of wearing? The fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism step by step?

 

Main body:

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap.Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Sometimes there are so many dirty clothes, so they may take special tools to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on.washing1864.jpg

The earliest washing “machine” was the scrub board, or wash board, invented in 1797. American James King patented the first washing machine to use a drum in 1851 — the drum made King’s machine resemble a modern machine; however, it was still hand-powered.

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

In 1858, Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine. In 1874, William Blackstone of Indiana built a birthday present for his wife. It was a machine which removed and washed away dirt from clothes. This was the first washing machine designed for convenient use in the home.

schaeffers washing machine 2.jpg

It’s a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an english printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” This collage of a stylised 1950s interior is a landmark in post-war art. The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life. Hamilton-appealing2.jpg

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce. 

At that period, women worked in the industries, however, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised.  Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

In my final major project I am doing  menswear, but I want to talk about how women fight for the right of wearing “men’s wear”, in addition, my theme is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined. It’s like the state of menswear and womenswear, there are o definite boundaries for men’s and women’s wear. Nowadays a lot of women wear the power suit and they consider that wearing men’s wear is a kind of way to show the personality, but in the past, we can’t believe how the women fight for the right of wearing pants, women wore the pants which is a very dangerous thing, even is life threatening.

World War I was born the first woman to wear pants: Mary Walker, military doctor, the honorary medal of the only female winner. Several times to wear trousers and was arrested until Congress passed legislation to give her privilege – the United States approved the military doctor Mary Edward Walker wear pants at work. After the war she has been committed to women’s improvement, promotion of women’s rights movement. And World War II completely broke the women to wear pants deadlock.

In 1932, the United States movie star Marlene Dieti also wear pants walking in the streets of Paris, the police detained her on a “bad style” accusal, after the feminist demonstrations in the police, the police were forced to release her. And another reason why the police release her that the same year the Nazi party became the largest congress of the German Congress.

Feminist driven the change of womenswear.

After all, in the 1776 American Declaration of Independence, the French Declaration of Human Rights in 1789, the two prominent human rights manifestations, the meaning of “human rights” is only the right of men. Women’s rights are human rights and human rights are not women’s rights. From the women’s and women’s citizenship declaration began, starting from the women’s conference, out of the pursuit of equal human rights, the wave of feminism began. Since then, modern Western women’s change has begun.

In 1966, Yves Saint Laurent promoted the famous “Le smoking”,

how-yves-saint-laurent-revolutionized-womens-fashion-by-popularizing-the-le-smoking-suit.jpg

 

 

12/05/17 | Development

12/05/17

I drew more design and picked up three design to make the draping, so I continued to do the draping. In my design, I wanted to mix different clothes, and chose a part of clothes to sew together. Another idea is about the pocket and waist band, I want to use a range of pockets and the waist bands of jeans. So we can see there are a range of detail which I used the pockets and waist bands. I made plenty of pocket and waist to drape on the mannequin, I moved around the body, changed the shape and thought about the combination of the colour and fabric.

11/05/17 | Development

11/05/17

I continued doing the design, some design are based on the draping I have done, which I used the second hand shop’s garment. I draped the garment upside down and overlapped the same garment. In my design, I was not draw exactly the same, I also mixed with some pattern, because I want to combine the ideas of textile silhouette. After I talked to the tutors, they suggested me to think about the back and front, so after that I really thought about the details and the both of front and back. I will keep record the idea and do some design. However, due to I’ve already got a lot of designs, so I planed to do the draping again to see the three-dimensional. I chose two to drape which are from my design. I used the a range of pockets and the waist bands and rearrange them.

10/05/17 | Development 

In the morning, we had the Life drawing lesson. Because we just rest few lessons, so Mandy said we can choose any media and use any way which we want to draw. By the way, recently I read a book which is about the illustration and I learned from that a lot, so this time I want to use some skills I found. I tried to use two hands to draw at the same time. Besides, I usually use my right hand, so using left hand is really uncomfortable and  inflexible. However, that why the painting are more interesting. Although I drew the same person, the two painting which I drew are different, the line which I used the right hand are more smooth, another one obviously are distorted. In addition, I used two hands to draw like the mirror at the same time, that so hard, because I need to pay attention to the two sides and I need to observe the shape of people very carefully.

In the afternoon, I kept designing the garment.

C&CS Final Essay | 09/05/17

Title:

How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction:

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry which is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. In addition, due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work, So the fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism ?

Main body:

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap.Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Stains might be treated at home before being taken to the river. You could take special tools with you to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. Factory-made washboards with metal or glass scrubbing surfaces certainly spread round the world in the 19th and early 20th centuries. There were washing machines of a kind, but not many homes had them. Ideas from inventors working on washing machines helped improve the design of simple washboards and dollies. A plain wringer was the most common piece of home laundry machinery in 1900.

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

schaeffers washing machine 2.jpg

It’s a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an english printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” This collage of a stylised 1950s interior is a landmark in post-war art. The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life. Hamilton-appealing2.jpg

Technology played a significant role in World War II.   Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce. 

At that period, women worked in the industries, however, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised.  Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

Organizations like the Woman’s Club of Winter Park were areas where women could associate with each other and were crucial venues for feminists.  Here, feminist groups aimed to “Advance the social, civic, educational and moral welfare of Winter Park, and also to seek cooperation with other similar clubs to promote knowledge of and interest in the work of women throughout the state and nation.”photo.jpg

Although the immediate Post-World War II years and the 1950s did not encompass the feminist movement that the 1960s and 1970s did, it is clear that feminism began to percolate in the post-war years.  In this decade, the general assumption as to whether or not the 1950s was a “good” decade can certainly be distorted from a woman’s point of view as women were forced out of respectable roles supporting their male counterparts into the common household becoming a professional homemaker

Peter Baxter’s 55-year-old mother was a  shining example.

Working as a clerk in the British Ministry of Supply, she was, her son reckoned, ‘enjoying herself more than she has done for years. She has a quick brain, and it is stimulating for her to be using her wits instead of toiling through a load of housework’.

There was food for thought here. ‘Much as  she has loved her children, she might perhaps have been happier all these years if she could have kept on with a business career,’ he mused.

My final major project is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined or easy to perceive or understand. I came up with one of my ideas when I did my laundry, the process of laundry can interpret indistinct, after washing the clothes are from untidy to tidy, which is a kind of change from indistinct to distinct.

 

08/05/17 | Development 

08/05/17

About the draping, I want to do three sections, the first one I’ve already done, which used the fabric sample I made to drape, then I wanted to used the garment I brought from the second hand shop to drape.The reason why I want to separate draping into three parts that the different media I used can give me different inspiration, for instance, Using textile sample to drape can give the idea of choosing fabric and the texture of the garment. Using garments from second hand shop to drape inspired me a lot of ideas about silhouette. Furthermore, after I finished all my design, I want to do draping again, I will drape several which are based on the design. Because I think when we see the three-dimensional piece, we can directly see how it looks like, so I want to use calico to drape again and I will use the fabric I brought to test. Here is the drawing which I inspired from the draping. I may not drew the same and colour I used are not the same. Because I just wanted to use the draping to get some ideas.

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