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C&CS final essay

Title: How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Student name: Yuqin Huang

CEG08034406

Course name: Fashion

Collage name: Cambridge School of Visual and Performing Arts

Date: 22/05/17

 

Introduction

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry through the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. Due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work. The collage called “Rosie the Riveter” by J. Howard Miller showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” This reflected the right of women improved a lot at that time. However, after the World War II men returned home and eventually their occupations were occupied. Furthermore, clothing has long been considered a badge of cultural identity. And feminism itself has undergone significant change since the rise of second-wave feminism in the late 1960s. Female started to fight for wearing pants, how did women fight for the right of wearing? How did the fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism? So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism step by step?

 

Body

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap. Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Sometimes there are so many dirty clothes, so they may take special tools to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. At that time, due to the heavy housework and the responsibility of looking after kids, female didn’t have more leisure time to do what they really want. Nevertheless, washing machine is the basic appliances in our daily life, but the invention of washing machine went thought a long history.

Image from History of Laundry – after 1800, 2010

 

Actually, the earliest washing “machine” was the scrub board or wash board, invented in 1797. Then, American James King patented the first washing machine to use a drum in 1851 — the drum made King’s machine resemble a modern machine; however, it was still hand-powered.

 

The idea of washing by machine traced back to a long way, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. In 1858, Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine. In 1874, William Blackstone of Indiana built a birthday present for his wife. It was a machine which removed and washed away dirt from clothes. This was the first washing machine designed for convenient use in the home.

Image from History of Washing Machines up to 1800, 2011

 

It was a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine, it kind of reflected how hard it is for women to cope with housework, but the appearance of washing machine saved plenty of time, which have a opportunity for women to do they want.

Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an English printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life.

 

Image from Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, Richard Hamilton

 

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce.

 

Image from Gender Goles in A Post-War America, 2013

 

At that period, women worked in the industries and played a important role, so we can know the right of women improve a lot and people more respected the female. However, it’s unfortunate that the good time doesn’t last long, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised. Some women wanted to work, because they felt more passionate when they were working. I consider that female also have the right to choose the life they want.

 

Although I am doing menswear in my final major project, I want to talk about how women fight for the right of wearing “men’s wear”. In addition, my theme is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined. It’s like the status of menswear and womenswear, I think there are no definite boundaries for men’s and women’s wear. Nowadays a lot of women wear the power suit and they consider that wearing unisex is a kind of way to show the personality, but we can’t believe how hard it is for women to fight for the right of wearing in the past, even just wore which was a very dangerous thing.

For instance, Mary Walker, military doctor, several times to wear trousers and was arrested until Congress passed legislation to give her privilege – the United States approved the military doctor Mary Edward Walker wear pants at work. She is the first woman to wear pants in the World War I. After the war she has been committed to women’s improvement, promotion of women’s rights movement. Furthermore, in 1932, the United States movie star Marlene Dieti also wear pants walking in the streets of Paris, the police detained her on a “bad style” accusation, after the feminist demonstrations in the police, the police were forced to release her. Until World War II completely broke the women to wear pants deadlock.

Image from YSL’s Le Smoking Suit, 1966, Helmut Newton

 

Feminist advanced the change of women’s wear. In 1966, Yves Saint Laurent promoted the famous “Le smoking”, which is the first female tail coats. It has indicated that the era of women wearing trousers is coming. Or put it to another way, wearing unisex clothes also advanced the development of feminism. Due to the unisex design like the thickened shoulder pads and stiff trousers, gave a power for female to fight for the right of women. Although previous the meaning of “human rights” is only the right of men. (the French Declaration of Human Rights in 1789) Women’s rights are human rights and human rights are not women’s rights. From the women’s citizenship declaration began, starting from the women’s conference, out of the pursuit of equal human rights, the wave of feminism began. Since then, the change of modern women has begun.

Traced back to the origin of the laundry, we can see how hard it is for the women to live and the development of washing machine went through a long process. Due to the invention of the washing machine, it saved more time and gave women a chance to “have a break”, so that in the World War II women had the opportunity to work in the industry, which showed the ability of women that they are not worse than men. Women strive for more equal right through their own efforts. Despite the development of feminism was not a straight way and I can’t say the invention of washing machine advanced the development of feminism directly, but to some extent, society gave more esteem to the women, which the contemporary women have raised the cultural consciousness and self-confidence. However, the fact that there are so many unfair to women, a struggle for feminism is still a long and difficult attempt to achieve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Adam, Butler. The Art Book. London, Phaidon, 1994.

Bellis, Mary. “Check Out This History of Washing Machines.” ThoughtCo, 12 Apr. 2017, http://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-washing-machines-1992666. Accessed 13 May 2017.

“History of Laundry – after 1800.” Laundry History 1800s, Washing Clothes in the 19th Century, Victorian and Edwardian Laundering, 30 Sept. 2010, http://www.oldandinteresting.com/history-of-washing-clothes.aspx. Accessed 2 May 2017.

“History of Laundry.” Laundry History, Washing Clothes in Middle Ages, Renaissance, Tudor, Restoration, Colonial, Georgian Times, 13 June 2010, http://www.oldandinteresting.com/history-of-laundry.aspx. Accessed 25 Apr. 2017.

“History of Washing Machines up to 1800.” History of Earliest Washing Machines, Schäffer, Beetham’s Washing Mill, First Inventions, 14 Apr. 2011, http://www.oldandinteresting.com/history-washing-machines.aspx. Accessed 2 May 2017.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Did Olympe De Gouges Spark Women’s Rights in France?” ThoughtCo, http://www.thoughtco.com/olympe-de-gouges-rights-of-woman-3529894. Accessed 13 May 2017.

Kgeorge, “Gender Goles in A Post-War America.” ThirdSight History, 13 April 2013, social.rollins.edu/wpsites/thirdsight/2013/04/13/gender-roles-in-a-post-war-america/. Accessed 9 May 2017.

Shardlow, Estella. “How Yves Saint Laurent Revolutionized Women’s Fashion By Popularizing The ‘Le Smoking’ Suit.” Business Insider, 8 Aug. 2011, http://www.businessinsider.com/ysls-greatest-fashion-hits-2011-8?IR=T. Accessed 21 May 2017.

 

Image List.

http://www.oldandinteresting.com

http://www.oldandinteresting.com/history-washing-machines.aspx

The Art Book

social.rollins.edu/wpsites/thirdsight/2013/04/13/gender-roles-in-a-post-war-america/

http://www.whowhatwear.co.uk/yves-saint-laurent-le-smoking-suit

C&CS Final Essay | 16/05/17

­How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry when is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. Due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work. The collage called “Rosie the Riveter” by J. Howard Miller showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” This reflected the right of women improved a lot at that time. However, after the World War II men returned home and eventually their occupations were occupied. Furthermore, clothing has long been considered a badge of cultural identity. And feminism itself has undergone significant change since the rise of second-wave feminism in the late 1960s. Female started to fight for wearing pants, how women fight for the right of wearing? The fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism step by step?

 

Body

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap. Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Sometimes there are so many dirty clothes, so they may take special tools to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. Due to the heavy housework and the responsibility of looking after kids, female didn’t have more leisure time to do what they really want. Nevertheless, washing machine is the basic appliances in our daily life, but the invention of washing machine went thought a long history.

Image from

 

The earliest washing “machine” was the scrub board, or wash board, invented in 1797. American James King patented the first washing machine to use a drum in 1851 — the drum made King’s machine resemble a modern machine; however, it was still hand-powered.

 

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

In 1858, Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine. In 1874, William Blackstone of Indiana built a birthday present for his wife. It was a machine which removed and washed away dirt from clothes. This was the first washing machine designed for convenient use in the home.

 

 

It was a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an English printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life.

 

Image from Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, Richard Hamilton

 

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce.

 

 

At that period, women worked in the industries and played a important role, so we can know the right of women improve a lot and people more respected the female. However, it’s unfortunate that the good time doesn’t last long, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised. Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

 

However, I am doing menswear in my final major project, but I want to talk about how women fight for the right of wearing “men’s wear”. In addition, my theme is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined. It’s like the status of menswear and womenswear, there are no definite boundaries for men’s and women’s wear. Nowadays a lot of women wear the power suit and they consider that wearing unisex is a kind of way to show the personality, but we can’t believe how hard it is for women to fight for the right of wearing pants in the past, which wore the pants which is a very dangerous thing, even is life threatening.

For instance, Mary Walker, military doctor, the honorary medal of the only female winner. Several times to wear trousers and was arrested until Congress passed legislation to give her privilege – the United States approved the military doctor Mary Edward Walker wear pants at work. She is the first woman to wear pants in the World War I. After the war she has been committed to women’s improvement, promotion of women’s rights movement. Furthermore, in 1932, the United States movie star Marlene Dieti also wear pants walking in the streets of Paris, the police detained her on a “bad style” accusation, after the feminist demonstrations in the police, the police were forced to release her. Until World War II completely broke the women to wear pants deadlock.

Image from YSL’s Le Smoking Suit, 1966, Helmut Newton

 

Feminist advanced the change of women’s wear. In 1966, Yves Saint Laurent promoted the famous “Le smoking”, which is the first home tail coats. It has indicated that the era of women wearing trousers is coming. Or put it to another way, wearing unisex clothes also advanced the development of feminism. Due to the unisex design like the thickened shoulder pads and stiff trousers, gave a power for female to fight for the right of women. Although previous the meaning of “human rights” is only the right of men. (the French Declaration of Human Rights in 1789) Women’s rights are human rights and human rights are not women’s rights. From the women’s and women’s citizenship declaration began, starting from the women’s conference, out of the pursuit of equal human rights, the wave of feminism began. Since then, modern Western women’s change has begun.

 

C&CS Final Essay | 13/05/17

Title:

How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction:

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry when is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. Due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work. The collage called “Rosie the Riveter” by J. Howard Miller showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” This reflected the right of women improved a lot at that time. However, after the World War II men returned home and eventually their occupations were occupied. Furthermore, clothing has long been considered a badge of cultural identity. And feminism itself has undergone significant change since the rise of second-wave feminism in the late 1960s. Female started to fight for wearing pants, how women fight for the right of wearing? The fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism step by step?

 

Main body:

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap.Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Sometimes there are so many dirty clothes, so they may take special tools to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on.washing1864.jpg

The earliest washing “machine” was the scrub board, or wash board, invented in 1797. American James King patented the first washing machine to use a drum in 1851 — the drum made King’s machine resemble a modern machine; however, it was still hand-powered.

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

In 1858, Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine. In 1874, William Blackstone of Indiana built a birthday present for his wife. It was a machine which removed and washed away dirt from clothes. This was the first washing machine designed for convenient use in the home.

schaeffers washing machine 2.jpg

It’s a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an english printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” This collage of a stylised 1950s interior is a landmark in post-war art. The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life. Hamilton-appealing2.jpg

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce. 

At that period, women worked in the industries, however, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised.  Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

In my final major project I am doing  menswear, but I want to talk about how women fight for the right of wearing “men’s wear”, in addition, my theme is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined. It’s like the state of menswear and womenswear, there are o definite boundaries for men’s and women’s wear. Nowadays a lot of women wear the power suit and they consider that wearing men’s wear is a kind of way to show the personality, but in the past, we can’t believe how the women fight for the right of wearing pants, women wore the pants which is a very dangerous thing, even is life threatening.

World War I was born the first woman to wear pants: Mary Walker, military doctor, the honorary medal of the only female winner. Several times to wear trousers and was arrested until Congress passed legislation to give her privilege – the United States approved the military doctor Mary Edward Walker wear pants at work. After the war she has been committed to women’s improvement, promotion of women’s rights movement. And World War II completely broke the women to wear pants deadlock.

In 1932, the United States movie star Marlene Dieti also wear pants walking in the streets of Paris, the police detained her on a “bad style” accusal, after the feminist demonstrations in the police, the police were forced to release her. And another reason why the police release her that the same year the Nazi party became the largest congress of the German Congress.

Feminist driven the change of womenswear.

After all, in the 1776 American Declaration of Independence, the French Declaration of Human Rights in 1789, the two prominent human rights manifestations, the meaning of “human rights” is only the right of men. Women’s rights are human rights and human rights are not women’s rights. From the women’s and women’s citizenship declaration began, starting from the women’s conference, out of the pursuit of equal human rights, the wave of feminism began. Since then, modern Western women’s change has begun.

In 1966, Yves Saint Laurent promoted the famous “Le smoking”,

how-yves-saint-laurent-revolutionized-womens-fashion-by-popularizing-the-le-smoking-suit.jpg

 

 

C&CS Final Essay | 09/05/17

Title:

How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction:

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry which is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. In addition, due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work, So the fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism ?

Main body:

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap.Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Stains might be treated at home before being taken to the river. You could take special tools with you to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. Factory-made washboards with metal or glass scrubbing surfaces certainly spread round the world in the 19th and early 20th centuries. There were washing machines of a kind, but not many homes had them. Ideas from inventors working on washing machines helped improve the design of simple washboards and dollies. A plain wringer was the most common piece of home laundry machinery in 1900.

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

schaeffers washing machine 2.jpg

It’s a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an english printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” This collage of a stylised 1950s interior is a landmark in post-war art. The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone. Actually we can’t find the washing machine on the collage, so I won’t give the definitive answer to say that it’s necessary to use the washing machine at that time, but I am sure about the collage showed the culture of the 20 century, which the automatic products developed significantly and it has already exerted a subtle influence on people’s daily life. Hamilton-appealing2.jpg

Technology played a significant role in World War II.   Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, women also played a crucial role in America as their male counterparts were dispatched on multiple foreign fronts in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. With an abundance of opportunities available, women filled the jobs that were mostly occupied by men.  Many women began working in factories, manufacturing airplanes and working in shipyards; proving that women could perform “men’s work.”  Just as women’s role changed during World War II, it would change after the war was over and continue to evolve even today.

One of the common images associated with women during World War II is “Rosie the Riveter”, which is by J. Howard Miller. The image showed a women raised her flexed arm and said “We can do it.” The illustration was a way which the government to boost morale and recruit women into workforce. 

At that period, women worked in the industries, however, soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. So that some of women were compelled to go back home as a housewife and to take care of the kids while the husband went to work. As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised.  Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”

Organizations like the Woman’s Club of Winter Park were areas where women could associate with each other and were crucial venues for feminists.  Here, feminist groups aimed to “Advance the social, civic, educational and moral welfare of Winter Park, and also to seek cooperation with other similar clubs to promote knowledge of and interest in the work of women throughout the state and nation.”photo.jpg

Although the immediate Post-World War II years and the 1950s did not encompass the feminist movement that the 1960s and 1970s did, it is clear that feminism began to percolate in the post-war years.  In this decade, the general assumption as to whether or not the 1950s was a “good” decade can certainly be distorted from a woman’s point of view as women were forced out of respectable roles supporting their male counterparts into the common household becoming a professional homemaker

Peter Baxter’s 55-year-old mother was a  shining example.

Working as a clerk in the British Ministry of Supply, she was, her son reckoned, ‘enjoying herself more than she has done for years. She has a quick brain, and it is stimulating for her to be using her wits instead of toiling through a load of housework’.

There was food for thought here. ‘Much as  she has loved her children, she might perhaps have been happier all these years if she could have kept on with a business career,’ he mused.

My final major project is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined or easy to perceive or understand. I came up with one of my ideas when I did my laundry, the process of laundry can interpret indistinct, after washing the clothes are from untidy to tidy, which is a kind of change from indistinct to distinct.

 

C&CS Final Essay | 02/05/17

Title:

How did the invention of the washing machine advance the cause of feminism?

Introduction:

The development of the laundry has gone thought a long way, in this essay I talked about the history of the laundry which is from the past to now. People washed clothes by hands before, however the appearance of washing machines has changed people’s lives. We can see from the period of Pop Art, the painting by Richard Hamilton showed a range of automatically products, it means that the 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. Besides, the post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer. In addition, due to the lack of male labor, women had opportunity to work, So the fact vigorously promoted the process of the feminism. So in this essay I talked about how did the revolution of the laundry reflect feminism ?

Main body:

Once upon a time, the way of tackling laundry is that washing in the river with a metal washboard and bar of hard soap.Washing clothes in the river is the normal way of doing laundry in many less-developed parts of the world. Even in prosperous parts of the world riverside washing went on well into the 19th century, or longer in rural areas – even when the river was frozen. Stains might be treated at home before being taken to the river. You could take special tools with you to the river to help the work: like a washing bat or a board to scrub on. Factory-made washboards with metal or glass scrubbing surfaces certainly spread round the world in the 19th and early 20th centuries. There were washing machines of a kind, but not many homes had them. Ideas from inventors working on washing machines helped improve the design of simple washboards and dollies. A plain wringer was the most common piece of home laundry machinery in 1900.

The idea of washing by machine goes back a long way, but nothing practical happened until the mid-1700s. Before that, three early designs take turns being put forward as “first washing machine ever”. An early 17th century book by Jacopo Strada’s grandson Ottavio showed his 15th century idea for a washing machine, probably intended for use in textile manufacturing. Then in the 1670s John Hoskins experimented with putting fine laundry into a thick bag that could be soaked before squeezing with a “wheel and cylinder” mechanism. A 1691 English patent referred to an “engine” with a long list of possible uses, including clothes washing. But it is unlikely to get the royal approval. It’s not until the mid-1700s that we see signs of progress with labour-saving washing machines. Versions of the tub in the first picture were on sale in London by 1752, when it was said to have been “long in use” in the North of England. It is clearly related to the washing dollies that were common home laundry tools in the 19th century.

schaeffers washing machine 2.jpg

It’s a long way of development of laundry from the hand washing to the washing machine. Besides, from some art work that we can see the evidence how the development of the washing machine. The collage called Just What is it That Makes Today’s Home So different, So Appealing?, which is by an english printer and collage artist Richard Hamilton, ” This collage of a stylised 1950s interior is a landmark in post-war art. The artist has combined cut-up photographs and cuttings from magazined to create a consumer paradise”( Butler, 1994) It shows the a range of the automatic product, such as the radio, the cleaners and telephone.

“The imagery Hamilton has used embodies the Pop Art movement with used symbols from contemporary mass media, popular culture and advertising.”( Butler, 1994)

Hamilton-appealing2.jpg

 

 

My final major project is about the “Indistinct”, which is means that not clear defined or easy to perceive or understand. I came up with one of my ideas when I did my laundry, the process of laundry can interpret indistinct, after washing the clothes are from untidy to tidy, which is a kind of change from indistinct to distinct.

Presentation| The secret about fashion industry

Intro:

Before I start my presentation I have some question.

There are some question, could you tell me what do you think about this?

-Are you interesting in fashion ?

-Do you still think the fashion industry is a high threshold professional ?

-Do you know some information about the fashion weeks?

-Did you watch YouTube?

-Do you want to know some secret about fashion industry?

Slide02.jpgMy topic is about the secret about the fashion industry and I will tell your some information about the fashion industry, may you want to know. Nowadays many people like using social media to show their life, besides people prefer to watch photos and videos rather than read articles. YouTube already become a media to get some information and have fun, as well as Instagram. So I want to talk about the people who are the Youtuber or the fashion blogger. There are some youtubers and bloggers, who are willing to share their outfit and try on show on the Youtube. Some are very famous youtubers, maybe you already known about them.

Bloggers:

-Jenn ImSlide03.jpg

(photos from:https://www.instagram.com/imjennim/?hl=en)

(born September 22, 1990) is a Korean-American fashion and beauty vlogger, best known for her YouTube channel, ClothesEncounters.

Korean-American video blogging YouTuber who offers her viewers style musings, tutorials, and lifestyle advice on her channel ClothesEncounters, which has earned over 1.7 million subscribers.

Jenn Im has been vlogging since 2010. It started as a bit of fun with her friend Sarah and grew into something wildly successful. At 24 years old, Jenn has over a million subscribers to her channel, Clothes Encounters, which she now runs alone, and is the go-to source for all your questions about what high street garb to wear, how to wear it, where to shop, and, most importantly, how to be happy with and in yourself. Born and raised in LA, Jenn would always struggle to find her voice in class, but fast forward to today and she is fast becoming one of the leading voices of the digi generation.

(reference from:http://www.famousbirthdays.com/people/jenn-im.html)

Another youtuber who I really like is Sonya Esman.

-SONYA ESMAN

Slide04.jpg

(photos from:https://www.instagram.com/sonyaesman/?hl=en)

She joined the YouTube world in 2009 with a YouTube channel called thatsophiakid which she continued to use after creating her classisinternal channel in February of 2011.

Fashion, occasional makeup and daily life vlogger who contributes to Conde Nast’s Canadian platform Fashionation TV. Her best known YouTube channel, classisinternal, has accumulated over 1.7 million subscribers.

(reference from:http://www.famousbirthdays.com/people/sonya-esman.html)

why is she so popular?

-Warm, candid,

-Jenn treats her audience as if she would her old friends  she laughs with them, introduces them to her boyfriend and shares with them intimate details about her life

-it is this sense of realness and authenticity that viewers find so appealing.

-Bored of Photoshopped perfection, fashion’s unrealistic ideals of beauty

However, where there are fans there will always be haters, and for some reason vloggers seem to attract a lot, especially from those traditionalists who value fashion for its exclusivity and elitism. Weighing up both arguments we caught up with the fashion vlogger to talk trolls, travel and female empowerment.

Another blogger who is very famous is Chiara Ferragni.

-Chiara Ferragni

Slide06.jpg

(photos from:https://www.instagram.com/chiaraferragni/)

An Italian business woman and a ‘famous’ fashion influencer on social media. She is a blogger and fashion designer, also an ex-law student from a small town near Milan. As a blogger, she is known as The Blonde Salad, which is the name of both her fashion blog and her first published book.

Slide07.jpgStarted The Blonde Salad blog in 2009, documenting her camera-ready personal style, full of prints, blowdried hair and kooky cross-eyed faces.Seven years later, she has 7.3 million followers on Instagram, 1.2m likes on Facebook and more than 14m page views per month on her website. The latter now handily also functions as a shop selling everything from suitcases to stilettos designed by Ferragni. There’s also Chiara Ferragni Collection, a shoe brand with flats and boots covered with her signature eye logo.

HOW SHE BECOME FAMOUS AND HOW SHE EARN MONEY ?

Slide09.jpgFerragni’s followers certainly know a lot about her life, or the edited version of it anyway. She posts about six times a day on her personal account – almost all selfies of a life lived in party dresses or pyjamas accessorised with suitcases or beanies. Each one, on average, is liked approximately 80,000 times.

She has so many follower on the social media, so there is a good platform, many brands want to use her popularity to sell the goods. The brands send the goods for her, she try on the clothing and post the photos on the social media, also tag the brand’s name, there are millions of people will see those photos and give the thumbs-up, it’s a good way to promote  product. She can make a packet out of it. Additionally, she set up her own brand,Chiara Ferragni. She also use the social media to promote, we can see the eyes pattern everywhere in her photos.

(reference from:https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2016/nov/29/chiara-farragni-blogger-the-blonde-salad-socia-media-style-posts-multi-million-pound-business)

After we watched the beautiful photos and know something about the fashion blogger and youtubers.We know they usually took a range of pictures, travel around the world,  someone even was invited to attend the high-end show. So do you want to be a fashion blogger or youtubers?

Can anyone be a blogger or vlogger?


Technically anyone can be a blogger or vlogger, but if you want a wider reach you definitely have to have a good work ethic. Being consistent and coming up with fresh ideas every week is a commitment you’ll have to take.

What makes you stand out from all other vloggers?

Let your viewers feel like they’re actually there with you.For example, if you travel to somewhere, recorded the detail about the life like what you did and showed you subscribers what I wore there.

Nowadays many fashion blogger willing to take part in the fashion week. It’s a good way to  promote themselves, because in the fashion weeks, there are a range of media like magazines and websites reporting the news, they will take photos of them, some will give a short introduce, it’s a good way to get exposure rate. So do you know what is fashion weeks? what different between the four major fashion weeks?

Fashion week 

A fashion week is a fashion industry event, lasting approximately one week, wherein fashion designers, brands or “houses” display their latest collections in runway shows to buyers and the media. These events influence trends for the current and upcoming seasons.The most prominent fashion weeks are held in the fashion capitals of the world, the “Big Four” receiving the majority of press coverage being New York, London, Milan, and Paris.The concept of fashion week began in Paris, when marketers would hire women to wear couture items in public places, from racetracks to salons.

Four fashion week two times a year, divided into autumn and winter fashion week (February and March) and spring and summer fashion week (September and early October) two parts, each time in about a month held more than 300 fashion Conference. Specific time is not necessarily, but are released during this period.

(reference from:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion_week)

What is the different between the four fashion weeks ?

NEW YORK FASHION WEEKSlide12.jpg

Every year in New York organized by the International Fashion Week, in the fashion industry has the supreme status, designers, brand names, supermodel, star and magnificent neon shirt plumage together to interweave a luxury fashion event.

LONDON FASHION WEEKSlide13.jpg

One of the world’s four major fashion shows in London fashion show may not be as good as Paris and New York fashion show, but it is an alternative to the concept of fashion design and exotic form of display is known. Some “fancy dress” with ingenuity of the way presented to the attendees to bring surprises.

PARIS FASHION WEEKSlide14.jpg

Paris, France, known as “the center of the clothing center.” Internationally recognized as the top-level clothing brand design and marketing of most of the headquarters are located in Paris. Information from here is the international trend of the vane, not only to lead the French textile and garment industry trends, and lead the international fashion trend.

MILAN FASHION WEEKSlide15.jpg

Milan is Italy has a long history of cultural city, was the largest city in Italy. Milan is one of the world’s fashion industry center, its fashion world-renowned. Italy is a veteran of the textile and apparel production power and power, the Italian textile and garment industry products with its perfect and sophisticated design and superb post-processing world-renowned, especially Italian men and women’s top fashion brand-name products and leather clothes, shoes, purses, etc. Leather products in the world textile industry occupies an important position.

book reference :20th Century Fashion,John Peacock, 1993, Tames and Hudson

 

The turner prize 2016

The Turner Prize is awarded annually to an artist under fifty, born, living or working in Britain, for an outstanding exhibition or public presentation of their work anywhere in the world in the previous year. Since it was set up in 1984, the Turner Prize has become one of the best-known visual arts prizes. Each year, four artists are shortlisted, and the prize awarded for an outstanding exhibition or other presentation in the preceding year. The prize is awarded purely on the exhibition or presentation the artist was nominated for. Although the shortlisted artists show their work in a Turner Prize exhibition, that exhibition has no bearing on the decision. The artists can choose to show any recent work and they make their selection in collaboration with curators from Tate Britain.To begin with, the prize could be awarded to anyone working in the arts (including curators, critics or gallery directors) for the ‘greatest contribution’ to art. But in 1988 this changed and the prize was awarded to artists only. In 1991, it changed again to introduce the age limit of 50, clarifying that the prize was not a ‘lifetime achievement’ award. The Turner Prize award is £40,000. £25,000 goes to the winner and £5,000 each goes to the other shortlisted artists.

The Turner Prize 2016 exhibition showcases the work of the four nominees: Michael Dean, Anthea Hamilton, Helen Marten and Josephine Pryde. This year the winner of the Turner Prize is Helen Marten . (search from: http://www.tate.org.uk/turner-prize/about )

Helen Marten

Helen Marten was born in 1985 in Macclesfield. She lives and works in London. She uses sculpture, screen printing and her own writing to produce installations that are full of references, from the contemporary to the historical, and the everyday to the enigmatic. For the Turner Prize she brings together a range of handmade and found objects drawn from daily life and more unusual sources (including cotton buds, coins, shoe soles, limes, marbles, eggs, snooker chalk and snakeskin). Her collage-like gatherings of objects and images have a playful intent, creating poetic visual puzzles that seem to invite us into a game or riddle. (search from: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/turner-prize-2016/about-artists/helen-marten )

HEMA139-1400x669.jpg
Brood and Bitter Pass, 2015
Steel; Aluminium; Model Board; Ash; Cherry; chipboard; sprayed MDF; blown glass; glazed ceramic; screen printed Latex; bucket; cast Resin; cast Jesmonite; stones; cast Rubber; flocked aluminium; gold leaf; cotton; nails; magnets; heating filament; lace; vinyl; twig; glass beaker; cast concrete; brass; Neoprene rubber; stitched and embroidered fabric; airbrushed steel; cardboard; sand; sugar; felt; oyster shell
Overall: 118 1/2 x 321 5/8 x 44 inches (301 x 816.9 x 111.8 cm)

original-23.jpg

On aerial greens (haymakers), 2015
Part 1: lacquered hardwood, steel, shoe soles, rubber, cast rubber, cast resin, stitched fabric, pipe tubing, galvanised cardboard, string, stamped baking paper, limes, marbles, embroidered fabric
Part 2: screen printed suede, leather and PVC, hand thrown glazed ceramic, lacquered hardwood, Formica, cast resin, cast rubber, woven straw
91 7/8 x 180 1/2 x 18 1/2 inches (233.5 x 458.5 x 47 cm)(search from:http://www.greenenaftaligallery.com/artists/helen-marten )

 

Michael Dean

Michael Dean was born in 1977 in Newcastle upon Tyne. He lives and works in London. He  starts his work with writing – which he then gives physical form. He creates moulds and casts of his words, abstracting and distorting them into an alphabet of human-scale shapes, using materials that are instantly recognisable from everyday life such as concrete, steel, soil, sand and corrugated sheet metal.Dean’s sculptures aren’t intended to be read as recognisable words, but he does want us to see an element of language in their forms – to be able to imagine a word or idea. Parts of his sculptures often resemble the human body: tongues, limbs, eyes, and casts of his family’s fists appear among the forms – directly referring to our bodies as we move through the gallery and around his works.

mumichaeldeanturnerprize.jpg

Clockwise from top left
Installation view of Sic Glyphs 2016, South London Gallery, Image courtesy of the artist, Herald St, London, Mendes Wood DM, Sao Paulo, Supportico Lopez, Berlin, Photo: Andy Keate
Photo of Michael Dean Photo taken by the artist
Installation view of Sic Glyphs 2016, South London Gallery, Image courtesy of the artist, Herald St, London, Mendes Wood DM, Sao Paulo, Supportico Lopez, Berlin, Photo: Andy Keate (search from:http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/turner-prize-2016/about-artists/michael-dean)

Anthea Hamilton

Anthea Hamilton was born in 1978 in London. She lives and works in London.Research is at the heart of Anthea Hamilton’s work, whether it is into art nouveau design, the roots of 1970’s disco or lichen. Each subject is studied closely and used as a lens through which to view the world. Hamilton talks of being strongly influenced by the early 20th century French writer and dramatist Antonin Artaud and his call for the ‘physical knowledge of images’. It is this bodily response to an idea or an image that she wants us to experience when we encounter her work and its use of unexpected materials, scale and humour.

Project for a Door (After Gaetano Pesce) is a large backside (or ‘butt’) inspired by a photograph showing a model by Italian designer Gaetano Pesce. Originally intended as a doorway into a New York apartment block, the work was never realised. Project for a Door is part of a series by Hamilton of larger than life-size remakes, physical realisations of images taken from her archive.andreahamiltonturnerprize.jpgClockwise from top left
Portrait of Anthea Hamilton, Photo by Lewis Ronald
Project for Door (After Gaetano Pesce), 2015 installation view, Anthea Hamilton: Lichen! Libido! Chastity!, SculptureCenter, 2015, Courtesy the artist, Photo: Kyle Knodell
Brick Suit, 2010, installation view, Anthea Hamilton: Lichen! Libido! Chastity! SculptureCenter, 2015, Wool, lining, 22 x 5 x 46 inches (55.9 x 12.7 x 116.8 cm), Courtesy the artist. Photo: Kyle Knodell (search from:http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/turner-prize-2016/about-artists/anthea-hamilton )

Josephine Pryde

Josephine Pryde was born in 1967 in Alnwick, Northumberland. She lives and works in London and Berlin.Josephine Pryde uses photography and sculpture to explore the nature of image making and display. For the Turner Prize she has created new works using domestic kitchen worktops. To make these pieces, Pryde placed objects on the back of the worktops and then exposed them to sunlight in London, Athens and Berlin. The resulting marks are reminiscent of photograms, a cameraless photographic technique developed by early photographers but often associated with experimental 20th century photography.

For its presentation here at Tate Britain, the train, as the adapted title of the piece suggests, is temporarily static, elevated on a platform and awaiting its next move.
Pryde’s ongoing series of photographs, Hands “Für Mich”, resemble fashion or advertising images. They are closely cropped and focus on the models’ upper body and hands, which are touching objects such as phones, computer tablets, driftwood and notebooks. Our attention is drawn to the point at which the body and the object meet and to the gestures the hands perform.

josephineprydeturnerprize.jpgClockwise from top left
Portrait of Anthea Hamilton, Photo by Lewis Ronald
Project for Door (After Gaetano Pesce), 2015 installation view, Anthea Hamilton: Lichen! Libido! Chastity!, SculptureCenter, 2015, Courtesy the artist, Photo: Kyle Knodell
Brick Suit, 2010, installation view, Anthea Hamilton: Lichen! Libido! Chastity! SculptureCenter, 2015, Wool, lining, 22 x 5 x 46 inches (55.9 x 12.7 x 116.8 cm), Courtesy the artist. Photo: Kyle Knodell (search from:http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/turner-prize-2016/about-artists/josephine-pryden)

 

 

 

Primary Research Project Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts, Norwich

15/11/16

Today we went to the Norwich and visited 2 main exhibitions which are The Sainsbury Family Collection and Fiji-Art and Life in the Pacific.

ABOUT : The Sainsbury Family Collection

THE BUILDING

Designed between 1974 and 1976, the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts was the first major public building designed by now renowned architect Norman Foster.The chosen location was a sloping east-west site by the River Yare, at the very edge of campus.With the need to house many functions under one roof, Foster’s solution was highly innovative. The building is a prefabricated modular structure formed around a steel framework, with individual aluminium or glass panels assembled on site.Spaces between the external cladding and internal shutters house plant and service functions. An underground corridor runs along the building’s spine, to access to storage and workshop areas.(Search from : http://www.scva.ac.uk/about/the-building )

HISTORY

When the Sainsbury Centre first opened its doors in 1978, the ‘Living Area’ space inside that displayed the Sainsbury Collection was also ground-breaking.It was designed as a place of visual communication. All objects were housed at comfortable eye-level in small groups within free-standing square or rectangular cases to enable 360 viewing. The Sainsburys did not want a museum but for people to view objects closely and to appreciate them in the way they had themselves, with minimal labelling.(Search from : http://www.scva.ac.uk/about/history )

COLLECTION

The Collections at the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts represent some of the most remarkable works of art assembled in the United Kingdom, spanning some 5,000 years of human creativity. (Search from : http://www.scva.ac.uk/about/collection )

In this exhibition , we saw a range of artwork which are really amazing. And I choose several art work which I most interesting in it .

 

In this painting , from the title we know this is a head of a man which means that is a portrait , and we can see this painting is a side of face , the color is used in this painting which almost is cold tone but with a little bit red tone , besides , we can see the expression in his eyes looking down , so I guess this guy may feel depressed and disappointed. Additionally , from this painting , we can know this is an abstract art , because if we want to draw a realism portrait , we will draw very careful as the appearance of the face , but in this painting we can’t see the real appearance of the face. A little bit rad color is the point in this painting I think , because if all the painting are the cold tone ,may we will feel boring ,but he add some red to make the painting more alive .

 

 

In this work , he used a lot of material which are the ink on paper , carve and string .The sculptor works within abstraction, employing geometric forms and linked shapes to create towering and physically imposing works. Chillida’s sculptures reflected his interest in space and materiality, and  he just use the simple line to show the space and content. There is a saying that less is more , I think this work is doing a great job of representing the opinion.Besides ,we can know from the shape which is very abstract , there is a standing person looking in the distance . From this artwork , I was inspired and in the following study , may I will use the simple line or just few detail in my design ,which is enough showing my point .

 

 

Firstly ,the most attracted me is the cute and special shape with the distinctive pattern , there is a special kind of national character . The obverse side we can see there is a person sit in a animal (I guess ) , the back side is a pattern which looks like a ladybug . Because it was a national object and from North America and Northwest Coast , so most often associated with shamanic practices on the Northwest Coast, raven rattles are held oriented with the bird’s beak pointing down when used in dance.Additionally, rattles like this are used to channel a shaman’s spirit guide and can be used in healing ceremonies.

 

 

This Jizō-Bosatsu (Ksitigarbha) with its warmly elegant face.This is an important extant example of a work whose date of production, commissioner and contributors to the inscription found inside of the sculpture. It is also the symbol of the Buddhism ,and very similar with the China . In Chinese history , many people who believe the Buddhism are very extensive. Additionally , the appearance of the sculpture are also very similar , the back side have the pattern of aperture ,  the figure of the Buddha are standing in the lotus flower , and the hand hold the staves .

 

 

Those three painting all about the back of nude ,but from different period , the first and second are in the 1985 ,the third is late 5 years . And we can see from the development , the size become more and more bigger and the content become more and more indistinct .The first we can distinct see the shape of body ,however ,the third one we can’t make out the appearance of the body , so we can guess as time goes by the style of the painting become more and more abstract .  Besides , there is another interesting thing ,which the painting is made by oil and acrylic ,but when I first time see this , I think those make by the pencil or  color pencil . The texture of painting is very special , and we also can know the artist have  great drawing skill.

 

 

IMG_2803.JPG

This is a self-portrait from Titian , he draw the old man who is John Berger.  We can see in this drawing , he just use the simple line to draw a head ,even without any tone ,but also we can see the expression of his eyes ,which looks very serious and solemn .Besides , there is a line of hand written words in the following paragraph , which writes ‘a portrait is finished by the spectator looking at it .’ In my opinion ,I think this sentence means if we draw a portrait , we will as a spectator or a bystander to reassess ourselves , we need to throw off all partiality and be honest to ourselves , so that we can draw the true self .

Earth Art & Land Art

The background of Andy Goldsworthy

“Andy Goldsworthy is an extraordinary, innovative British artist whose collaborations with nature produce uniquely personal and intense artworks. Using a seemingly endless range of natural materials—snow, ice, leaves, bark, rock, clay, stones, feathers petals, twigs—he creates outdoor sculpture that manifests, however fleeting, a sympathetic contact with the natural world. Before they disappear, or as they disappear, Goldsworthy, records his work in superb colour photographs.”(http://visualmelt.com/Andy-Goldsworthy)

On his work ,he use the materials from the nature ,like leaves ,ice ,wool ,rock and so on.It’s very different to use the material of traditional sculpture , so when we saw it , we were surprised by his work.It can be exhibit in the galllery ,because the space can’t show them and some work just be create for a while , then it will disappear. For instance , the Ice Spira just can be showed in the winter and last for some time. It is very differnert from the be made in the landscape and in the gallery , because in the landscape don’t restrict the place and the size of the artwork ,but in the gallery just exhibit some smaller artwork.  However,there are also some disadvantage about the artwork in the landscape , it will easy be destroyed.

Besides, it is also very difficult to make the sculpture contribution and to maintain it . For example , like the leaves artwork ,at the beginning he needed to find the different colour leaves and got together to put them on the grass . Due to he do his work outside and the extraneous factor will affect it a lot. Like the weather , in winter when the temperature was very low and the ice can be frozen, then he can start to do some work which is using ice. He use some pieces of ice and the water to stick different piece together. But,when sun rises and the temperature goes up , the work will melt and all the efforts were in vain,sometimes even the breeze will affect his work. We can imagine how hard he did this work , so he might spent a range of time to make it and after finish it ,he needed to take photo very quickly to record his work .

leaves_byandygoldsworthy.jpg

Rowan Leaves & Hole

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Ice Spira

“I want to get under the surface. When I work with a leaf, rock, stick, it is not just that material in itself, it is an opening into the processes of life within and around it. When I leave it, these processes continue.” said Andy Goldsworthy. 

From this paragraph , it give me me a diffferent understanding of the meaning ,which the art is not only can be created in the gallery but also can be showd in the natural world. Besides, we not only can use the ceramics and the wool to do a sculpture, but also can use some natural things to make it.  art 140.jpgAndy-Goldsworthy-Rivers-and-Tides.jpg

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